Working with PowerShell & Multiple Azure Contexts

When working with multiple Azure subscriptions, the PowerShell Az.* modules allow for easy context switching. This means that you can run commands agains multiple subscriptions, or you can run commands against subscriptions without changing your default context. An Azure Context object contains information about the Account that was used to sign into Azure, the active (for that context) Azure Subscription, and an auth token cache is not actually empty, it just can't read from here for security reasons, though you can read it with the Get-AzAccessToken command. Here's what is in an Azure Context object: PS> Get-AzContext | fl * Name : TK-PRD (yyyyyyyy-yyyy-yyyy-yyyy-yyyyyyyyyyyy) - Account : Environment : AzureCloud Subscription : yyyyyyyy-yyyy-yyyy-yyyy-yyyyyyyyyyyy Tenant : zzzzzzzz-zzzz-zzzz-zzzz-zzzzzzzzzzzz TokenCache : VersionProfile : ExtendedProperties : {} If y

Building OpenVPN on Solaris 11.2 for use with PIA VPN

I recently had a desire to get OpenVPN working on Solaris 11.2, to allow me to connect to a Private Internet Access (PIA) VPN. For more information on using a VPN for general internet access, as well as some insight into why you might want to look into it for yourself, see:

A quick Google turned up a blog post from Stefan Reuter detailing how to set up OpenVPN on OpenSolaris 2008.11.

For Solaris 11.2 the basic steps are still pretty much the same, but some of the minor details have changed. We still need the TAP driver for solaris, and we obviously need to download and build OpenVPN, but we don't need to edit the TUN/TAP Makefile anymore, and we don't need any patches for OpenVPN. One step I added was to download and compile the LZO compression library for OpenVPN.

Step 1: Install the TAP driver.

# git clone
# ./configure 
# gmake
# sudo gmake install
  • The full output of running those commands, if you are in any way possibly curious.

Step 2: Install the LZO compression library.

# wget
# tar -zxvf lzo-2.09.tar.gz
# cd lzo-2.09
# ./configure 
# gmake
# gmake check
# sudo gmake install
  • More full output of running those commands, if you are in any way possibly curious.

Step 3: Install OpenVPN.

For OpenVPN, we modify CFLAGS and LDFLAGS, to let OpenVPN find the LZO library we just installed, and we add '--enable-password-save', which will allow us to store the username and password for the VPN in a file.
# wget
# tar -zxvf openvpn-2.3.6.tar.gz
# cd openvpn-2.3.6
# CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/lib" ./configure --with-gnu-ld --enable-password-save
# gmake
# sudo gmake install
  • Yet again, even more full output of running those commands, if you are in any way possibly curious.

Once OpenVPN is installed, configuring it for use with Solaris is relatively straight forward. PrivateInternetAccess have a bunch of OpenVPN configuration files, with some very useful defaults. Since I'm on the East coast of the US, I started with the "US East.ovpn" file:
dev tun
proto udp
remote 1194
resolv-retry infinite
ca ca.crt
remote-cert-tls server
verb 1
reneg-sec 0
crl-verify crl.pem
To which I added a few options of my own:
auth-user-pass .pia.login
script-security 2
route-delay 2
The auth-user-pass .pia.login line tells the OpenVPN client to read your username and from a file in the current directory called '.pia.login' (Make sure your path is correct if you have issues). The contents of that file are your username by itself on line 1, and your password by itself on line 2.
The rest of the lines all affect how routing is done for the VPN. Left to it's own devices, OpenVPN doesn't have the code necessary to automatically manage routes. For example, it can't automatically determine the default gateway, and modify that route to update the default gateway to the VPN's default gateway.
Wed Apr  8 00:54:10 2015 NOTE: unable to redirect default gateway -- Cannot read current default gateway from system
The solution for that is to use a route-up script to handle the routing. In order for OpenVPN to use the script, you need to set script-security 2, or you see show-stopping warnings such as:
Wed Apr  8 01:09:00 2015 WARNING: External program may not be called unless '--script-security 2' or higher is enabled. See --help text or man page for detailed info.
Wed Apr  8 01:09:00 2015 WARNING: Failed running command (--route-up): external program fork failed
With script-security set to a reasonable level to allow OpenVPN client to run scripts, we use route-delay 2 to tell the client to give the client 2 full seconds to get the VPN tunnel set up before doing anything with routing, and route-noexec tells the client not to make any direct changes to the routing tables, and the route-up tells the client to run a script, which I very imaginatively called, during the route-up phase of client activity. The contents of the script look like:
#!/usr/bin/env ksh

# OpenVPN passes the remote gateway in as $route_vpn_gateway.
/usr/sbin/route add $route_vpn_gateway
/usr/sbin/route add $route_vpn_gateway
Since more specific routes are always preferred over less specific routes, setting these two routes allows us to route everything over the VPN without having to make any changes to the default route, thereby bypassing OpenVPN's lack of ability to manage Solaris routes. If the VPN goes down, the routes are removed, and you still have access to the internet via your existing default route. You also maintain access to your local LAN because that route will be even more specific, and it's directly connected. You will just not have the same amount of privacy at that point.


  1. Thanks a lot for the guide. Have you by chance repeated this on Solaris 11.3? I am trying to do so in order to connect to NordVPN, but while I can build OpenVPN and LZO OK, and connect using NordVPN's provided config files, I am finding OpenVPN core dumps as soon as I attempt to use the connection.

    OpenVPN also core dumps during a couple of its test cases (make check), although that appears related to one particular crypto algorithm - AES-128-GCM - and my config file is using AES-256-CBC. Nonetheless, I have a feeling OpenVPN isn't liking the updated OpenSSL in Solaris 11.3.

    If you've replicated your steps in 11.3 and have more success than I've so far managed, I'd be very grateful for any advice. Thanks.

    1. Actually.. it's working! I followed your steps exactly, including using the older versions of LZO and in particular OpenVPN (I had been trying with the latest, 2.4.2). And I also used a default Solaris 11.3 install, without applying the latest FOSS updates which also update OpenSSL.

      So one or more of those changes has given me a working OVPN! I will now work out which one :)

      Thanks again for the guide - I'm now confident I can get a working setup, one way or another!

    2. OK it's the difference between OpenVPN version 2.3 and 2.4. I can use the latest 2.3 - 2.3.16 - no problem. But 2.4.0 and up segfault in the checks and in use. I will raise this with OpenVPN, they seem to be saying it's a problem with OpenSSL on Solaris and not OVPN.

      Either way, I'm fine with a working 2.3.x so all is good for me for now.

      Thanks again for the post.

    3. I'm glad you got it working, Tom! Thanks for following up with your solution.


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